The Winds of Change

The Winds of Change

Gone, all is gone.

Nothing remains.

Completely alone.

Silence abounds.

 

Nothing to fight for.

No more doing.

No more being.

The path has been discarded.

 

How sublime to abide in nothingness.

Seeing beyond the reach of time and space.

Inexpressible in words.

Ah, such profound peace.

 

But all is not as it should be.

A strange wind blows.

A dark shadow encroaches.

Smothering being’s hearts.

 

Gathering the energy of the universe.

I shall turn the Wheel of Truth.

The shadow may encroach no further.

Not on my watch. Not on my watch.

 

Blessed by the wisdom of my forefathers.

I shall defeat all inner and outer obstacles.

Brilliant white light will shine throughout space and time.

Dispelling ignorance and hatred.

 

The harvest will be painfully small.

Most will fall and drown.

But some will inhale the breath of life.

Come now, there is much to do.

 

Ven Dr Edo Shonin & William Van Gordon

 

Do You Really Know Yourself?

Do You Really Know Yourself?

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The words ‘know thyself’ appear frequently in the work of the Greek philosopher Plato and have been used by writers and philosophers for thousands of years. But what does it mean to know oneself, why is it important, and how can a person acquire such knowledge?

We suspect that some people would be uncomfortable, or even offended, by the suggestion that they don’t know themselves. We spend 24 hours a day in our own company and while it can sometimes be difficult to interpret other people’s thoughts, emotions, and behaviours, we can’t use this excuse when it comes to ourselves. We have direct access to our inner psychological world and in theory, we are in an ideal position to cultivate an in-depth understanding of who we are.

However, the truth is that many people are not aware of the events unfolding in their mind. At any one moment, a vast number of psychological processes are happening inside them, but at best, they are only partially aware of a small number of these. Consequently, their behaviours are the automated product of a complex – and sometimes competing – assortment of impulses, thoughts, emotions, perceptions, and memories. Rather than consciously allowing these psychological processes to influence their choices, they are effectively ‘processed’ by them. Instead of collaborating with the mind and using it as a tool, they find themselves ‘lived’ by the mind.

Changing this habit is easier said than done but there are some remits of human endeavour that may be able to assist us. In particular, we can look to modern science in order to gain insight into how we can develop a better understanding of ourselves. In order to acquire knowledge about a given phenomenon, scientists engage in the process of observation. This observation takes on many forms. It can involve observing phenomena in their natural state or it can involve observing how phenomena behave under a given set of experimental conditions. However, either way, careful observation is a crucial part of scientific enquiry and if we adopt the same principle in order to gain insight into ourselves, it is likely that our journey of ‘inner scientific enquiry’ will bear fruit.

By stepping back and observing our inner psychological world, a number of ‘truths’ about ourselves become apparent. Firstly, given that it is possible – particularly when using meditation – to observe our thoughts, feelings, and impulses, we must conclude that we are something more than these psychological processes. Secondly, we must also conclude that there exists a part of us that can ‘consciously observe’ our own mind. As we continue to engage in the process of inner observation, this ‘conscious observer’ part of us steadily grows, such that it becomes easier to maintain concentration and observe ourselves for longer periods of time.

A third truth that we may come to understand about ourselves is that the closer we observe, the harder it becomes to establish exactly who and what we are. The reason for this is that we don’t exist as standalone or isolated entities. We exist in reliance upon all other phenomena in the universe. We breathe in the out-breath of every other living being. When we drink a glass of water, we are effectively drinking rivers, clouds, and oceans. Our visit to the bathroom produces food for the plants and trees. Being embraced by a loved one can change a bad day into a good one, and a single heartfelt smile can completely change another person’s life.

In order to truly know ourselves, we have to fundamentally change our ideas of who we think we are and of how we think we exist. In effect, in order to find ourselves, we have to let go of ourselves.  When we stop thinking in terms of ‘me’, ‘mine’, and ‘I’, we start to see the world differently. We start to experience that the boundaries between ourselves and other phenomena become blurred. It becomes difficult to determine where the ‘self’ ends and ‘other’ begins. We adopt a much looser definition of ‘self’ yet somewhat paradoxically, we start to understand more about who and what we are.

Letting go of self really means that we are embracing the universe. The universe has existed for billions of years and it contains lots of knowledge. It contains the knowledge of creation, existence, and dissolution. We are an indispensable part of the universe and it relies upon us just as much as we rely upon it. By exploring the inner universe of our mind, we can weaken – or even remove completely – the boundary that we think exists between our inner psychological world and the external physical world. In other words, our practice of inner scientific enquiry and observation can, in time, cause our inner and outer worlds to collide. When this happens, we find ourselves flooded with the knowledge of the universe and the universe becomes flooded with the knowledge of our mind.

Ven Dr Edo Shonin & Ven William Van Gordon

Should Buddhists Celebrate Christmas?

Should Buddhists Celebrate Christmas?

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Our immediate response to the question of whether Buddhists should celebrate Christmas is: ‘if they feel like it’. However, we suspect that some readers might be looking for a fuller account of our view on this matter. Therefore, here are five reasons why we feel it is appropriate for Buddhists to celebrate Christmas if they feel like doing so:

  1. Christ was an enlightened being: We think there is a lot of synergy between the teachings of Christ and those of the Buddha. For example, one of Christ’s core messages (which don’t necessarily always coincide with the teachings of the Church) was that of unconditional love. Unconditional love and compassion for all beings are also important parts of Buddhist practice. It’s our view that all authentic paths of spiritual practice ultimately extend from, and lead back to, the same source. Therefore, we like to think that just like the Buddha, Christ was an enlightened being. We like to see the Buddha in Christ and Christ in the Buddha. Therefore, why not celebrate the life of Christ?
  2. Christmas is an opportunity to give: Undoubtedly, some individuals see Christmas as nothing more than an opportunity to make money, spend money, party, and/or go on holiday. However, although there are some who only engage with Christmas on a superficial level, this doesn’t mean that we have to follow suit. The idea at Christmas of exchanging gifts and spending quality time with friends and loved ones is wholesome. That said, in our opinion, we don’t need to wait until Christmas to give to others because each day provides an opportunity to be generous. Giving to others is really a means of giving to ourselves. When we give without expecting anything in return, we receive. We receive the psychological and spiritual benefits that arise from caring about others rather than only caring about ourselves. In a sense, giving is a means of letting go of ourselves and when we give with the right intention, it generally makes us feel lighter and happier. It’s good to give on a daily basis but designated periods for giving – such as Christmas – can also be a good idea. Christmas day provides us with an opportunity to practice generosity without the distraction of work and other obligations that are suspended due to the public holiday.
  3. ‘Buddhism’ is just a label: In our view, an individual that is truly in touch with their own path of spiritual practice is completely comfortable with experiencing, and learning from, other spiritual traditions. An important objective of Buddhist practice is arguably to not be attached to labelling oneself as ‘Buddhist’. When we stop labelling ourselves and others, it’s easier to transcend concepts. Labels have their uses but they can limit the mind. As we discussed in our post on ‘Being too Buddhist: A Teacher-Student Dialogue’, in our opinion, true Buddhists are those that have let go of the idea of being a Buddhist. They are people that embrace the practice of being a ‘non-Buddhist Buddhist’!
  4. An opportunity for inter-faith dialogue: We’ve touched on this point already but it is worth specifically highlighting the benefits of inter-faith dialogue. Learning about other faiths helps us to learn about our own faith. Interfaith dialogue broadens our perspective and helps us to understand that although the core tenets and beliefs of the world’s various religions sometimes seem incongruous, there exist individuals within these different religions who appear to be treading the same path. For example, Saint Francis of Assisi was a 12th Century Catholic monk who practiced contemplative living and spent time living in a cave. There are lots of Buddhist saints who have done precisely the same thing. According to the version of Saint Francis’ prayer that appears on Wikipedia, Saint Francis is reported to have said “Where there is hatred, let me sow love. Where there is injury, pardon. Where there is doubt, faith. Where there is despair, hope. Where there is darkness, light. Where there is sadness, joy … For it is in giving that we receive; It is in pardoning that we are pardoned; It is in dying to self that we are born to eternal life.” Assuming they did not have prior knowledge of who uttered these words, we suspect that many Buddhists would not have difficulty in believing that they are the teachings of a Buddhist saint.
  5. Christmas pudding is scrumptious: We (but especially Ven William who is basically a dessert addict and has a penchant for chocolate and cakes) think that Christmas pudding is delicious. Not partaking in Christmas celebrations is likely to reduce one’s overall intake of Christmas pudding during the festive period. This approach would be unadvisable for somebody who’s taste buds are particularly stimulated by Christmas pudding as well as other popular seasonal deserts (e.g., mince pies)!

Ven Dr Edo Shonin & Ven William Van Gordon

The Four Types of Psychologist: Ineffective, Satisfactory, Gifted and Gone Beyond

Note: The following post was written with Professor Mark Griffiths and has recently been published on PsychCentral. The full reference is: Van Gordon, W., Shonin., E., & Griffiths, MD. The Four Types of Psychologist: Ineffective, Satisfactory, Gifted, and Gone Beyond. Psych Central. Available at: http://pro.psychcentral.com/the-four-types-of-psychologist-ineffective-satisfactory-gifted-and-gone-beyond/0016491.html 

The Four Types of Psychologist: Ineffective, Satisfactory, Gifted and Gone Beyond

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Most introductory books on psychology inform readers that there are many different types of psychologist such as clinical psychologists, forensic psychologists, developmental psychologists, social psychologists, cognitive psychologist, health psychologists, occupational psychologists, sports psychologists, counselling psychologists, neuropsychologists and research psychologists. Clearly there are many other types of psychologist in addition to the list above, and there are also numerous sub-types of psychologist that specialise in a specific area within one of the aforementioned domains.

In this article, we deviate from the traditional model of categorising psychologists according to work setting and/or study perspective, and suggest a new schema that focusses on the underlying qualities and competencies of the psychologist. Our approach is not intended to supplant the aforementioned traditional categorisations. Rather, it is solely intended as ‘food for thought’ by suggesting a method of categorisation that emphasises the core skills and values that are common to the job description of all psychologists (i.e., irrespective of whether they work in clinical, occupational, or developmental settings, or adhere to a specific psychological perspective, etc.). Consequently, we have based our schema on the assumption that regardless of the particular setting or perspective in which a psychologist specialises, there is an expectation that all psychologists – at least to a small degree –  have an understanding of the scientific workings of the human mind and behaviour that exceeds that of the average lay person. Our method of categorisation is also founded on the assumption that, based on this greater degree of insight into the mind, all psychologists have a duty to guide others toward a better understanding of their own minds and behaviour, and where appropriate, toward improved levels of psychological wellbeing. Our ‘food for thought’ model comprises four categories of psychologist.

1. Ineffective Psychologists: The first class of psychologist are those that actually do more harm than good. There are various reasons why a psychologist might fall into this category, but in general it is due to shortfalls in either their attitude and/or ability. Therefore, it is possible that a psychologist in this category may sincerely wish to help a person, but they happen to be ineffective in this respect (i.e., they have the right attitude but lack the ability). Alternatively, a psychologist belonging to this category might be capable of treating people in a manner that helps them to grow as human beings, but they are uninterested in doing so (i.e., they have the necessary ability but the wrong attitude). One explanation of why a psychologist might have the required ability but inappropriate attitude is because the primary purpose for them performing their role is to accrue wealth or reputation.

2. Satisfactory Psychologists: Unlike the first class of psychologist, the second class of psychologist do more good than harm. However, although they create and spread more positivity than negativity, they are not what one might call ‘natural’ in the manner in which they embody and perform the role of a psychologist. In general, when this category of psychologist takes it upon themselves to better the psychological wellbeing of another human being, they are relying heavily on the various theories, models and practice guidelines that they have studied and trained in. These theories and practice techniques are normally evidence-based, and as such, they are generally of assistance to the other person. However, the fact that this second type of psychologist is heavily reliant upon processes and theories, means that there will always be a degree of disconnect between them and the individual they are interacting with. To a certain extent, this disconnect can be useful because it forms a protective barrier that the psychologist can work behind. However, it can also create an obstacle that prevents the ‘core’ of the psychologist’s being connecting and communicating with the ‘core’ of the other person’s being.

Put simply, it is rare for this type of psychologist that a meaningful ‘human-to-human’ interaction takes place, and as such, the person they are attempting to help invariably feels that they are the subject of a process or service. Consequently, an individual in the hands of this category of psychologist is unlikely to feel truly nourished or renewed. In summary, satisfactory psychologists do not embody and live the practice of psychology, and they are invariably unskilled at drawing upon and integrating their life experience into their work.

3. Gifted Psychologists: Individuals belonging to the third class of psychologist are much more natural at performing their role compared with those in the satisfactory category. In fact, one could probably go as far as to say that an individual belonging to this category of psychologist is ‘gifted’. They have an in-depth knowledge of all of the relevant psychological theories and techniques, but they understand that these models and processes are only tools. In fact, more often than not, this category of psychologist develops their own models and psychological techniques and they use these in their work and interactions with others. However, when they interact with other people, it is not entirely accurate to state that they are applying a theory or model. Rather, they are directly connecting with the individual on the ‘human-to-human’ level and they allow their intuition and instinct to guide how the dialogue and relationship evolves. The way in which they do this is still aligned with proven methods and practices, but they are not constrained by these methods and are spontaneous in the manner in which they help others.

Gifted psychologists have an in-depth understanding of their own mind, and as such, they understand well the mind and behaviours of others. When a patient, client, or another individual meets with a psychologist of this category, they immediately feel reassured due to knowing that they are in capable hands. This type of psychologist is confident, positive and energetic, and they inspire and invigorate people. They take the responsibility of being a psychologist and human being seriously and they are, by all accounts, impressive members of society.

4. Psychologists that have Gone Beyond: The fourth type of psychologist is an individual that has transcended all conventional criteria for evaluating the competency of a psychologist. Consequently, accurately determining whether a psychologist falls into this category requires skill, and it is easy to misinterpret their behaviour as evidence of them meeting the inclusion criteria for one of the three aforementioned outlined classifications. The rules that govern the decisions and strategies employed by ineffectivesatisfactory, and gifted psychologists no longer apply here. Psychologists that have Gone Beyond are individuals that have studied and investigated their own mind and behaviour to such an extent, they are no longer limited by it. They understand fully that, much like a spider’s web that spreads out in multiple directions, they are deeply connected to all other life forms and phenomena in the universe. Their insight and wide-ranging perspective means that they have a much more expansive selection of tools, techniques, and materials at their disposition. Psychologists that have Gone Beyond know and make full use of the fact that each of their thoughts, words and actions will reverberate throughout space and time, and will eventually come to touch all other beings. In this manner, they understand that they are a sculptor, and they use the world and its inhabitants as their raw material.

Psychologists that have Gone Beyond are truly remarkable beings – everyone they meet becomes their ‘client’, but in the majority of instances, individuals are unaware of the fact they are being helped. Irrespective of who a psychologist of this category meets or interacts with (e.g., a supermarket cashier, neighbour, work colleague, partner, or even a person wishing them harm), they provide the individual with exactly what they need in order to help them evolve as a human being. Except for a small number of individuals that also want to become Psychologists that have Gone Beyond (and who are searching for a suitable mentor), the work of psychologists belonging to this category often goes unnoticed. However, they are not in any way demotivated by this and in the majority of instances, maintaining a low profile allows them to perform their role more effectively.

Ven Dr Edo Shonin and Ven William Van Gordon

Mindfulness for Pet Dogs

Mindfulness for Pet Dogs

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Unsurprisingly, a search of the academic literature reveals that there has been little (if any) scientific investigation into whether dogs can be taught mindfulness. In fact, you would be forgiven for thinking that teaching dogs mindfulness is taking things too far and that it is another example of how ancient mindfulness teachings are being misappropriated in modern society. However, based on personal experience, it’s our view that under certain conditions and to a certain extent, some dogs can learn to practise a form of mindfulness. In this post we present the cases of Vajra, Tara, and Zeus – three beautiful dogs with whom we are fortunate to have shared our lives – and share how they have each come to embody a form of mindfulness practice.

Vajra

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Vajra was a medium sized mixed-breed male dog who lived with us at a Buddhist monastery and retreat centre that we ran in North Wales. Vajra (pictured above) was fawn coloured and his weight as an adult was approximately 18kg. Vajra came to us as a puppy from a dog rescue centre. He grew up in the monastery and met new people on a day-to-day basis. The monastery followed a daily routine of meditation practice involving formal seated meditations in the morning and evenings as well as periods of silence, walking meditation, working meditation, study, and chanting. At various times throughout the day, the monastery bell would sound in order to invite people to a particular practice or to remind them to stop, breathe, and remember that they are alive.

When Vajra was two years old, of his own accord he would come and lie in the meditation hall during the formal meditation sessions. To begin with, he would often just go to sleep and he could sometimes be heard snoring when people were trying to meditate. However, from the time Vajra reached three years of age, rather than lay on his side and go to sleep during meditation, he would assume a squatting position whereby he was still effectively lying down, but was upright and sat directly over his front paws. When sat in this manner, Vajra would hold his head off the ground and in addition to remaining alert, he would stay still and as quiet as a mouse. We suppose this posture would be similar to that which professionally trained dogs assume when they are given the “platz” command.

As mentioned above, walking meditation was practised on a daily basis at the monastery and this involved participants walking very slowly, in single file, and remaining meditatively aware of all that they experienced during each moment of every step. When he was young, Vajra would ignore the people practising walking meditation and would use the practice as an opportunity to play, sniff, and run around. However, as he grew older, Vajra started to join in with the walking meditation; he would take his place in the line of participants and place one foot in front of the other in a slow and focussed manner.

Of course, it is impossible for us to know what was going through Vajra’s mind when he exhibited these behaviours and it could be that all along, he was thinking about what he would receive for dinner or was just unconsciously mimicking our behaviour. However, many of the visitors to the monastery commented on Vajra’s calm nature and we like to think that in his own way, Vajra had learned to practice a form of meditation.

Tara

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Tara (pictured above) is a toy Jack Russel Terrier. She weighs about 5kg in adulthood and came to us as a puppy. Like many Jack Russel Terriers, for the first few years of her life, Tara was somewhat naughty. Despite almost being small enough to sit in the palm of a person’s hand, it seemed Tara thought that she was a Rottweiler and she would even try to dominate dogs that were ten times her size. Also, Tara had a habit of climbing trees and getting stuck high up in the branches such that in order to bring her down, we had to perform acrobatic manoeuvres that easily exceeded our tree-climbing capabilities. It’s fair to say that Tara was hard-headed and despite understanding fully our commands, she would frequently test how far she could cross the line.

However, when Tara turned four years old, she began to settle down and assume a much calmer demeanour. The house that we lived in with Tara was visited by a large number of practicing Buddhists (as well as spiritual practitioners from non-Buddhist traditions). In the house, there was a chiming clock that was used as a mindfulness reminder. When the clock chimed to announce the turn of the hour, people in the house were invited to stop whatever they were doing in order to return to awareness of their breathing and awareness of their being. Each time she heard the clock chime, Tara would freeze her position and remain perfectly still and quiet. In fact, there reached a point when not only would Tara take a moment of pause when the clock chimed, but if – as was frequently the case – visitors ignored the chiming clock, Tara would bark at them to remind them to stop and be present. Therefore, in the house at that time a system of a ‘double mindfulness reminder’ was in place; Tara reminded people to remember to be mindful of the mindfulness reminder!

Zeus

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Zeus is approximately one-year-old and his current weight is 42kg. Zeus was abandoned when he was five months old and as a stray dog, he roamed the countryside and streets for about three months. Zeus has been with us for four months and we are informed by the vet and a dog breeding specialist that Zeus is an American Mastiff. It is expected that Zeus will reach a weight of 50-60kg. Zeus is highly protective of us and through training, we are attempting to temper some of his protective instincts. He is making exceptionally good progress and we think that although his time in the wild has been difficult, it has helped him to think for himself and perhaps even to understand something about the nature of suffering.

Zeus appears to really enjoy joining in with meditation and related forms of spiritual practice. For example, when we practice chanting, Zeus makes deep humming and groaning noises, and if he hears the gong sound to announce the start of a meditation session, he comes running in from the land and sits in a relaxed but attentive manner at our side. When Zeus is practising canine meditation in this manner, if somebody throws him a treat or ball to fetch, he remains completely undistracted and won’t retrieve it until after the meditation session has concluded. Zeus has adopted these behaviours of his own accord and several individuals have commented that Zeus sometimes appears to exude an air of wisdom and elegance.

Concluding Thoughts

We have shared our lives with other dogs in addition to Vajra, Tara, and Zues. For example, in addition to mixed-breed and cross-breed dogs, family members have included a Border Collie, German Shepard, and Rottweiler. All of these dogs have been beautiful companions in their own right but it is only Vajra, Tara, and Zeus in whom we feel there was some genuine form of meditative practice. We have always attempted to obedience train any dog that has lived with us and to do so in such a manner that the dog enjoys the training and feels loved and cared for. However, we have never specifically sought to teach mindfulness to a dog and have found that just by practising mindfulness ourselves, most dogs gradually assume a calmer demeanour but a minority of dogs actually go onto practice what appears to be a canine form of meditation.

It should be noted that the type of canine mindfulness we are referring to here is very different from the high level of concentration exhibited by a working dog that is following their handler’s commands. As we have discussed in previous posts, mindfulness is not simply about being alert or concentrating in a focussed manner. It is more about being aware of one’s being and about the nature and dance of the present moment. There is no doubt in our mind that being in an environment or family where people practice mindfulness is of benefit to dogs and that in turn, the dog’s calmer demeanour is of benefit to family members. However, in the absence of empirical research, it is difficult to know what factors predispose a dog to learning mindfulness and, just as with humans, it could be that some dogs are simply more spiritually inclined than others. Empirical research to investigate some of these knowledge gaps would be both welcomed and interesting.

 

Ven Dr Edo Shonin and Ven William Van Gordon

 

Further Reading

Carbonell, H. J., Waite, D., & Jackson-Grossblat, A. (2016). The therapeutic effects upon dog owners who interact with their dogs in a mindful way. Journal of Humanistic Psychology. 56, 144-170.

Epstein, R. (1984). On mindfulness and our relation to animals. Between the Species. Available at: http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1423&context=bts

Fox, M. (2007). Dog body, dog Mind: Exploring canine consciousness and total well-being. Lanham, Maryland: Lyons Press.

Henry, C. L., & Crowley, S. L. (2015). The psychological and physiological effects of using a therapy dog in mindfulness training. Anthrozoös: A multidisciplinary journal of the interactions of people and animals, 28, 385-402.

Karen L. Dean (2005). Mindfulness meditation: Learning from dogis and mystical dogs. Alternative and Complementary Therapies, 11, 319-321.

A Big Pair of Dharma Balls

A Big Pair of Dharma Balls

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Today, perhaps more than ever before, it is easy to be drawn into what we call the cycle of soap-opera living. Soap-opera living is, unfortunately, rather common. A person caught up in soap-opera living is like a piece of plankton in the ocean that is continuously driven in different directions by the changing currents and tides. Despite being under the impression that they are making independent decisions, people living a soap opera do not have their eyes open enough to be able to truly to take control of their lives.

Individuals living a soap opera are highly influenced by whatever beliefs, behaviours, and pastimes are trending in society. Because the majority of individuals around them spend their time worrying about money, reputation, career, and relationships, the individual living the soap opera believes that they should do the same. If there is an atmosphere of stress at work because of a deadline approaching, or at university because exams are looming, the individual immersed in soap-opera living is drawn into and contributes to this stress. Because others are obsessed with what their friends and peers think of them, so is the person following the path of soap-opera living. They are pulled along by their own unregulated thoughts and desires, and by the thoughts and desires of those around them.

Walking an authentic spiritual path – Buddhist or otherwise – takes warrior-like courage. It takes courage because the spiritual practitioner has to break free of the cycle of soap-opera living when almost everyone around them is consciously or sub-consciously enticing them to remain firmly stuck in it. It takes courage because the spiritual practitioner has to leave behind the world that they have become accustomed to and enter unchartered territory. It also takes courage because the type of warriorship that fosters spiritual awaking requires the practitioner to blend together an attitude of fearlessness, with one of unwavering love and compassion for individuals who choose to remain stuck in the mire of soap opera life.

Leaving behind soap-opera living is easier said than done and should be seen as a life-long endeavour. As people move from the realm of the soap opera to that of awakened perception, there is a tendency for them to continuously try to find reference points or footholds where they feel safe. For example, they may have previously considered themselves a ‘businessman’ or ‘businesswomen’ but now they see themselves as a ‘Buddhist’ walking the path of Dharma. However, in order to progress along the path, the spiritual practitioner should try to avoid attaching labels to themselves. They have to let go of their old self and embrace a new self, but then they have to let go of the new self as well. Eventually, the spiritual practitioner has to find the courage to let go altogether – they have to let go without seeking to reinvent themselves.

Nothing in life is certain and all things change all of the time. If we try to create a ‘fixed self’ under such conditions, we are inevitably going to become unstuck. We need to be able to adapt to, and flow with, the changing conditions around us. From the spiritual practitioner’s point of view, this means seeing the teachings in a completely new way each day. Where the spiritual path once led them to embrace solitary meditation or a life of renunciation, it may at a subsequent point require them to fully immerse themselves in society and relinquish the notion that meditation is something that is ‘practiced’ rather than ‘lived’. Where the path of Dharma once required them to be a penniless mendicant, it may subsequently require them to rule a kingdom. Where it once required them to practise non-reactivity, it may require them – in the interests of compassion – to assume a more wrathful demeanour. Embracing such changes and challenges takes real warriorship as well as conviction in one’s chosen path.

In short, to walk the Buddhist or any other spiritual path effectively, the authentic spiritual practitioner must remain unattached to their current circumstances. They must come to understand that with every breath or footstep taken in awareness, they venture into the unchartered territory of the present moment. In short, being an authentic spiritual practitioner and leaving behind soap-opera living requires having a big pair of Dharma balls. Embracing life itself as the spiritual path and continuously letting go of who we think we are takes tremendous courage. However, with perseverance, this fearless approach to embracing reality yields unconditional happiness and profound spiritual insight. This is the path walked by all those who have attained Buddhahood in the past, and all those who will attain it in the future.

 

Ven Dr Edo Shonin and Ven William Van Gordon

Is Buddhism One or Many?

Is Buddhism One or Many?

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In our experience, most individuals who assert that ‘Buddhism is one’ are generally not well informed or are secret (or in some cases open) advocates of ‘hippyism’! Accordingly, the preferred scholarly position appears to be that there are ‘many Buddhisms’. In terms of the superficial form that Buddhism assumes within a particular culture, time, and geographic region, this assertion is perfectly true. For example, Theravada Buddhism is prevalent throughout South East Asian countries (e.g., Thailand, Sri Lanka, and Burma) and places emphasis on following the original word of the historical Buddha. Mahayana Buddhism, which originated several hundred years after Theravada Buddhism, is prevalent throughout East Asia (e.g., Japan, Taiwan, Korea, and Vietnam) and places emphasis on compassionate activity and the non-dual or empty nature of phenomena. Vajrayana Buddhism didn’t become popular until around the 7th Century and is associated with Himalayan plateau countries such as Tibet, Bhutan, Nepal, and Mongolia (and to a lesser extent Japan). Compared to Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism, Vajrayana Buddhism places greater emphasis on ‘sacred outlook’, the bond between teacher (or ‘guru’) and student, and on various esoteric practices. Schools representing all three Buddhist vehicles (i.e., Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana) are present in the West – where to admittedly differing degrees – they continue to embody the teachings and practices of their source traditions.

Despite these differences between Buddhist vehicles (and even between the various schools that comprise a particular vehicle), we would argue that it is still possible from an informed/scholarly position, to assert that Buddhism is one. Such an assertion is based on the fact that all authentic Buddhist lineages teach methods that ultimately lead to the same result. Furthermore, most of these methods are intended to directly or indirectly foster insight into core Buddhist principles such as suffering, impermanence, and non-self. In essence, suffering is suffering whether you approach it from a Theravada, Mahayana, or Vajrayana perspective. The same applies to impermanence and non-self. Another good example is the trishiksha principle (Sanskrit for the ‘three trainings’; Pali: tisso-sikkha) that incorporates the three trainings of wisdom, meditation, and ethical awareness. These three trainings form the foundations of any authentic Buddhist path, regardless of what geographical region or historical period it originates from.

The essential point is that the different Buddhist vehicles and their respective traditions work with many of the same underlying principles, which they reconstitute and teach in different ways. Furthermore, it is our experience that the further a teacher or practitioner advances along the path of spiritual awareness, the more they start to see similarities between the various Buddhist paths (as well as between Buddhist and non-Buddhist paths). Perhaps this is because the teachings are equivalent to a finger that points to the moon, but they are not the moon itself. In other words, there are some underlying truths of reality and the diverse spiritual teachings are methods of introducing discerning individuals to these truths.

Whenever a realised spiritual being expounds the Buddhist teachings, they provide individuals with an entirely new path of practice. It is completely new compared to that which has gone before because it is being taught by a different teacher, to different students, and in a different period of time. However, although it is a new path, it is really just a manifestation of a ‘universal path’ that, as one of its defining features, has the ability to assume new forms according to the prevailing conditions. A suitable analogy to explain this principle might be that of a chameleon lizard that changes its colour and complexion according to its surroundings. The chameleon can display many different colours, but it is always the same chameleon.

Our view is that the most profound Vajrayana practices are implicit within the simplest of Buddhist teachings, such as the discourse on the four noble truths. Likewise, we believe that Theravada Buddhism, when correctly understood and practiced, can, in particular circumstances, introduce spiritually ripe individuals to what are generally regarded to be Vajrayana or tantric meditative attainments. Within Buddhism, there are different interpretations of how to effectively practice spiritual development, but in essence, they represent variations on the same theme. Consequently, it is possible to make a credible argument that Buddhism is many, but it is also possible to credibly argue that it is one.

Ven Edo Shonin and Ven William Van Gordon

Further Reading

Shonin, E., & Van Gordon, W., & Griffiths, M. D. (2016). Mindfulness and wellbeing: Towards a unified operational approach. In: I. Ivtzan, & T. Lomas (Eds). Mindfulness in Positive Psychology: The Science of Meditation and Wellbeing (pp. 280-292). Oxford: Routledge.

Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., & Singh, N. N. (Eds). (2015). Buddhist Foundations of Mindfulness. New York: Springer.

Shonin, E., & Van Gordon, W. (2015). The lineage of mindfulness. Mindfulness, 6, 141-145.

Shonin, E., Van Gordon W., & Griffiths, M. D. (2014). The emerging role of Buddhism in clinical psychology: Toward effective integration. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 6, 123-137.

Van Gordon, W., Shonin, E., & Griffiths, M. D. (2016). Buddhist emptiness theory: Implications for psychology. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, DOI: 10.1037/rel0000079.

Van Gordon, W., Shonin, E., Griffiths, M. D., & Singh, N. N. (2015). There is only one mindfulness: Why science and Buddhism need to work together. Mindfulness, 6, 49-56.

Van Gordon, W., Shonin, E., Griffiths, M. D., & Singh, N. N. (2015). Mindfulness and the Four Noble Truths. In: E. Shonin, W. Van Gordon, & N. N. Singh (Eds). Buddhist Foundations of Mindfulness (pp. 9-27). New York: Springer.

Before Time Goes By

Before Time Goes By

time 1

Clicca qui per l’Italiano

Growing and play

Adventure each day

The joys of childhood

But time goes by

Education and training

Ignorance waning

The value of knowledge

But time goes by

Courtship and romance

Love’s heart-warming dance

 The beauty of youth

But time goes by

A family to raise

Hungry mouths that gaze

The duty of parenthood

But time goes by

Making a living

No time for giving

The demands of work

But time goes by

Beliefs to fight for

Ideas to deplore

The folly of the pious

But time goes by

Growing reputation

Seeking acclamation

The lure of power

But time goes by

Wealth amassing

Owning and outclassing

The pleasure of possessing

But time goes by

Winning on Sunday

Losing on Monday

The uncertainty of life

But time goes by

Pain and sickness

Loss of mental quickness

The loneliness of old age

But time goes by

Fear of dying

Lament and crying

The inevitability of death

But time goes by

Oh when will you sever

Your pointless endeavour

And relinquish your plans

Before time goes by

Oh when will you pacify

Your clinging to ‘I’

And embrace compassion

Before time goes by

Oh when will you console

Your restless soul

And know lasting peace

Before time goes by

Oh when will you heed

Your teacher’s plead

And enter the Way

Before time goes by

Oh when will you find

Your innermost mind

And dwell in emptiness

Before time goes by

Oh when will you be bestowed

Your rightful deathless abode

And return to home

Before time goes by

Ven Edo Shonin and Ven William Van Gordon

Prima che il tempo passa

time 1

Crescere e giocherellare

Le avventure giornaliere

Le gioie dell’infanzia

Ma il tempo passa

Educazione e allenamento

L’ignoranza in declino

Il valore della sapienza

Ma il tempo passa

Il corteggiamento e la passione

La danza di amore che scalda il cuore

 La bellezza della gioventù

Ma il tempo passa

Una famiglia da allevare

Bocche affamate che non fanno altro che guardare

Il dovere della paternità

Ma il tempo passa

La necessità di fare soldi

Non c’è tempo per essere generosi

Le esigenze del lavoro

Ma il tempo passa

Lottare per le cradenze morale

Idee da deplorare

La follia delle persone pie

Ma il tempo passa

Una crescente reputazione

Alla ricerca di acclamazione

Il richiamo di potere

Ma il tempo passa

Ammassare benessere

A padroneggiare e il desiderio di surclassare

Il piacere di possedere

Ma il tempo passa

Vincere la Domenica

Perdere il Lunedi

L’incertezza della vita

Ma il tempo passa

Il dolore e la malattia

Perdita della prontezza mentale

La solitudine della vecchiaia

Ma il tempo passa

La paura di morire

I lamenti e il piangere

L’inevitabilità della morte

Ma il tempo passa

Oh quando reciderete

Il vostro sforzo pleonastico

E rinunciare ai vostri piani

Prima che il tempo passa

Oh quando riuscirete a pacificare

il vostro attaccamento a un ‘sé’

E abbracciare la compassione

Prima che il tempo passa

Oh quando vi consolate

Il vostro anima inquieta

E conoscete una pace duratura

Prima che il tempo passa

Oh quando farete attenzione

all’appello del vostro insegnante

E intraprendere la Via Giusta

Prima che il tempo passa

Oh quando troverete

La vostra mente più profonda

E dimorate nel vuoto

Prima che il tempo passa

Oh quando si sarà elargito

La vostra dimora immortale legittimo

E tornate a casa

Prima che il tempo passa

Ven Edo Shonin and Ven William Van Gordon

 

 

Does Mindfulness Work?

Does Mindfulness Work?

Future 4

We were recently invited to write a paper for the British Medical Journal that discusses the treatment efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions. The paper has just been published and is entitled ‘Does Mindfulness Work?’. It can be accessed (for free) here: http://www.bmj.com/content/351/bmj.h6919.full?ijkey=Q3IuzuNeBFUkrZP&keytype=ref

We wrote the paper with our friend and colleague Prof Mark Griffiths and the full reference is as follows: Shonin, E, Van Gordon, W, & Griffiths, MD. (2015). Does Mindfulness Work? British Medical Journal, 351: h6919. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.h6919

Ven Edo Shonin & Ven William Van Gordon

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